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Saturday, March 25, 2017

What To Do With Climate Change Stress

Source: Grist Climate Article
We are animals, there’s no way around that. We have the instinctual reactions of our animal ancestors within us in the form of fight or flight stress responses. But our stress today is different than anything our ancestors faced because of our ability to know what is happening around us. Ancestral human-like creatures used their fight or flight triggers to give them speed and agility when facing an immediate threat. If a cave lion is stalking you, run! If there’s a fire headed toward your village, run! And run fast! The physiological effects of being in a stressful situation are designed to give the body a short-term boost of energy, strength, and coordination. What they don't do is respond well to long-term stressors. 

Chronic stress is a leading killer in today’s world, possibly more harmful than smoking. Evolutionarily it’s as if our bodies haven’t yet adapted to our intellectual capacity. We can remember the past in great detail; we can look into the future and deduce the most probable scenarios of what is to come. This intelligence leads to long-term stress, and our bodies can't handle being in stress mode for very long. When we’re stressed, our bodies shut down less important processes like tissue reparation and digestion. Our blood pressure spikes, our heart rate increases, and our sympathetic automatic nerve system takes over. When exposed to stress chronically, our bodies start to break down and eventually, we develop heart disease or other long-term illnesses.

So, if we aren’t designed to live in constant stress, how do we deal with a collapsing ecosystem, energy system, and financial system? How do we find happiness in what can seem like such a hopeless world? How do we avoid the dark chasms of grief, and how should we live?

It appears as if each of us is going through a different stage of grief for the loss of our beloved environment. There’s plenty of denial out there, anger, hopelessness, and even some acceptance. When we lose a loved one, we’re expected to move through all of the stages of grief…so should it be different when we’re faced with the loss of our civilization? The fire is edging the village. What are we to do…Fight? Flee? Or Mourn?

Focus on the Breath

Meditation is the act of clearing the mind of clutter and worry. In times when life seems overwhelming, sometimes a few conscious breaths go a long way. Through teaching our minds to focus on the present moment instead of the perilous and uncertain future or painful past, we can counteract many of the stress responses that occur within our bodies. Taking some quiet moments, or even an hour, each day to clear the mind and focus on the breath will combat any stress, whether it be climate related or not. We can take this consciousness and inject it into every moment of our lives through practicing mindfulness. 
Mindfulness is the practice of focusing on what is, and what is right now. Give all of our attention to the task at hand, even if you’re doing the dishes…and do them well. When the Dalai Llama was asked by a college student what she should be doing in the face of all this climate change and societal collapse his response was a question.

Dalai Llama: “What are you right now?”
Student:  “I’m just a college student…”

Source: Mystic Medusa
Dalai Llama: “Then just be the best student you can be.”

It reminds me of Joseph Campbell’s famous advice, "follow your bliss." Follow that which makes you feel fulfilled and joyful even if it doesn’t seem like the most logical path. People often respond to this with something like, “if we all did that then who’d take out the trash?” I don’t think a world full of fulfilled and joyful human beings would be trashy. As we place our security into the hands of nature and community…we will naturally take better care those things. Responsibility is part of living a purposeful life, we want a working role to give us purpose within a community. Human beings typically all want the same things: security, purpose, and community. We have proven over the ages that we will stand by and defend any system that offers us even a sliver of those feelings.

Nature is highly adaptable, and the universe is in constant change. Like in Permaculture, nature controls through rampancy. A fish lays 3000 eggs so that 100 will survive…but think about it. 100 fish just came from the one, that’s prolific! The point, please? It’s just that life, to quote Jurassic Park here, "finds a way.” The point is we are adaptable, our systems can change and us with them. Even when facing imminent doom, even after so much life has been can all turn around. I think that is why we exist with our big brains, language, and underdeveloped stress responses. We exist to predict the future, to participate in it, and to drive our evolution toward a sustainable existence.

Horror Science vs. Hopeful Science

The media is great at triggering our stress responses. If they succeed, then our attention is suddenly focused in on them as if they are giving us the biggest news of our lifetimes. Recent events have given them a lot of fuel to throw on that fire, and they are soaking it in gasoline (okay, enough with the metaphors). We are faced with unending studies warning of climate collapse, ocean acidification, melting arctic ice, methane release, pipeline contamination, etc. These make the news channels because they rally us around the televisions. The studies that don’t make the news channels are hopeful scientific studies, the ones that inspire us to turn off the noisy TV, breath deep, and smile.

The reality is we have all the tools we need to reverse climate change. I don’t put much stock into claims of a ‘tipping point’ or ‘point of no return,’ however scary they may sound. Those studies are based on models that don’t incorporate the potential of human-led reparation. Elaine Ingham at the Rodale Institute has demonstrated the ability of spirulina to bioremediate soils. This means that it removes toxins like arsenic, lead, and other heavy metals from the soil by breaking them down into constituents that are sequestered. Her active compost can break down asphalt and grow plants in oil contaminated soil.

Paul Stamets in his work with fungi has uncovered the massive healing characteristics of mushrooms. The Agarikon mushroom has shown the potential for being the world’s best defense against multiple viruses and pathogens. The Red Belted Polypore mushroom breaks down pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides. It will likely be able to prevent colony collapse disorder in bee colonies. Oyster mushrooms have the ability to clean oil out of water.

Geoff Lawton along with those mentioned above is currently experimenting with mycelium’s ability to lock up salt in sandy desert soils so that plants can grow without extensive flushing, erosion, and microbiological loss. They also lock up fertilizer salts (nitrates) and prevent them from washing into lakes and streams. We can pull carbon from the atmosphere and sequester it in the ground simply by re-greening portions of the earth. We now know that through repairing the life in our soils and greening deforested land, we can not only mitigate climate change but can reverse it.

The healing, like the destruction, will spread exponentially creating a domino effect of climate stabilization. The best part is that all the actions we’ll take to heal the earth will also make it fertile again so we can grow more and healthier food. It will incorporate animals, so we'll have vast herds of livestock that are treated with the utmost care and reverence, even, after we realize they are an essential part of this global ecosystem. Nature will diversify, adapt, and provide us with more solutions to future problems we haven’t even faced yet. We must embrace biology as a technology, but instead of trying to reduce it to its constituents, we’ll begin to study the connections and interactions within biological systems.


So fill your days with hopeful science, and learn about the solutions. The next time you find yourself in a climate discussion that seems hopeless, you can spread the word that nature is mend-able and we as humans are redeemable. It isn’t just a possible future, it is our future. As if trapped on a sinking ship with no land or lifeboats in sight, inevitability will catch up to us. We will set down our pride and humbly take a knee to the awesome power that was here before us, the natural world. It’s the coming of age ceremony for the morphogenic field of humanity, and after we learn some of life’s greatest lessons, we will celebrate this.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

The Rabbitry

There is an elephant at the Permaculture Homestead, in my opinion…and it’s something that not many folks I’ve encountered like to even talk about. If you’ve read our posts, you’re aware by now that we are passionate about animals and their welfare. Many of my neighbors, fellow homesteaders, and Permaculturists want to raise meat animals. They do care about the quality of the animal's life and want to provide a good home and diet for their animals.
There are handfuls of articles out there heralding the convenience of meat rabbits for small scale and urban homesteaders. They are quiet and will not annoy neighbors. They are prolific and will produce many offspring. They are also primarily grass eaters, making their food easy to come by. The final reason that homesteads gravitate toward bunny breeding and eating is one that raises, for me, more questions than it answers. They can be kept in small cages.
Photo Credit:

I am struck with a sense of hypocrisy when I see a homesteader providing the best pasture, the cutest coziest stall, and lots and lots of running room for their horses, cows, and sheep, and then, on the other hand, they raise meat rabbits in suspended wire cages. Tons of experts will tell you that it’s a clean and safe way to raise rabbits, but I have to wonder if that reasoning is from the rabbit’s perspective or the humans. Is it more convenient to have their poop in a pile that you’ve got to shovel out and distribute around your garden? Debatable. Is it worth reducing the quality of life of your animals drastically? A rabbit tractor may be the best of all worlds in this respect. Rabbits are on grass, where they would naturally be so you don’t have to feed them, and the excrement is distributed by them…not you.

Photo Credit:
Permaculture is about imitating nature, observing natural ecosystems, and attempting to recreate that stability and complexity within our own systems. We tend to recoil away from systems that confine animals and concentrate waste and are drawn to systems that rely on the animal’s instincts and behavior. For instance, a dairy where the cows are kept in concrete stalls for the entirety of their milk-giving career would not be a system that a Permaculturist would adopt. From our perspective that is a labor intensive, risky business. Why would you harvest and bring food to the cow when she is quite willing and eager to go and get it herself? Why would you concentrate her waste just to spend laborious hours re-distributing it when she can distribute it for you? Why would you ever risk her becoming ill because you can’t read her mind when she is capable of self-medicating if allowed a wide variety of forage and free choice? When you take this perspective, suddenly what is convenient for you is also beneficial for your animals. I think rabbit raising is no different and suspended wire cages are the concrete stalls of a dysfunctional rabbitry. 

Joel Salatin (Yes, I have to bring him up in every meat-animal related article I write) says to honor the cowness of the cow, the pigness of the pig…and the rabbitiness of the rabbit! Tell me what rabbitiness is expressed from the 24 inch square of a suspended wire cage? Not a whole lot. Rabbits are ground animals, not only that but they are burrow creatures. Getting their paws into the soil is an ecstatic fulfillment of purpose for them (seriously). If you’ve ever watched rabbits dig, you know what I’m talking about.

We are currently in the process of improving our rabbitry, and in the coming months, I will write a piece dedicated to showing it to you. In a word, though, I’d say it’s paradise. Paradise for rabbits, and I don’t think any of our animals deserve anything less. It didn’t take too much work, it’s not difficult to maintain, and it encourages the widest range of behavior in our animals which is what we strive for in every environment we create. I still get rich compost, it’s super convenient for feeding, and our rabbits have fresh grass and an extensive tunnel system they built. By incorporating the habitat into our greenhouse, they get protection from weather and predators plus I get to throw them whatever treats happen to be growing in there.
Photo Credit:

Our system isn’t for everyone, but it works for our homestead. I encourage everyone considering raising meat rabbits to avoid wire cages at all costs and put some time into designing a habitat that is rich for both you and your animals.  Farmers aiming to nurture life, add vibrancy, and create a sense of whimsical magic will benefit from self-designing their habitats within their practical design. That goes for every animal on the farm, always think habitat…not stall or coup or field or shed, and certainly not cage. It's not Permaculture until all of the aspects of the farm function like an ecosystem.

Sunday, March 5, 2017

5 Amazing Ecological Restoration Projects

Many people view the best response to climate change as inaction as if humanity should stay out of nature's way and stop interfering. Our growing world has growing demands for food, water, and other natural resources which seem at odds with conservation efforts. It doesn't have to be man vs. nature. Humans are a part of the natural world and should learn to live sustainably within it. Innovations in the way we view ecology and agriculture have led to amazing projects that seek to both serve the needs of people and rehabilitate ecosystems.

1. Veta La Palma

New York chef Dan Barber challenged what it meant to produce a sustainable food product in his wildly popular 2013 TED talk titled "How I fell in Love with a Fish." In this talk, Barber introduces a western audience to Veta La Palma, a fish farm in southern Spain. Not just a fish farm, this is a 28,000-acre wildlife sanctuary and ecological preserve. Historically, farmers built extensive canals to drain the entire area and make it habitable for raising cattle. In 1990, the local rice company PIMSA, in partnership with local ecological authorities, used the canal system to re-flood the region creating a network of aquaculture ponds and islands.

The fish are native species raised by biologists on a diet of natural algae until they are mature enough and released into the free-flowing system. The estuary is so abundant in natural resources that once released the fish eat what they would in the wild including shrimp, smaller fish, and aquatic insects. Over 250 species of waterfowl nest and feed in this rich environment including a flock of flamingos that make a 300-mile journey each day to feed here. This ecological and agricultural activity is not just producing food, it's helping to clean water and provide habitat for over 50 at-risk species of bird. The project has been massively successful, and Veta La Palma has now expanded from fish farming into rice production, livestock, and dry land crops.

2. Nachusa

There are few images more iconic to America than a herd of bison thundering across the midwestern prairies. Thanks to the Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program, The Nature Conservancy, the Friends of Nachusa Grasslands, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers that is becoming a reality again. Since 2013, ecologists have shaped the land for hydration and re-seeded 3500 acres of Illinois to rekindle native grasslands, wetlands, and forests. They have reintroduced over 100 native plant species. Ecologists released 30 bison into the habitat in 2015. Today, the herd has grown to 90 healthy individuals. The animals are attracting attention near Sioux City, IA where cars line up to see them.
After over 100 years of agricultural abuse, this region is getting a taste of a future dedicated to healthy diverse ecosystems. Only about one 100th of one percent of native Illinois prairie land hasn't been converted into farmland. Projects like this one seek to increase that prairie land. They are also challenging what it means to farm vs. restore wilderness. The Nature Conservancy is considering selling some of the animals for meat in coming years. If ecologists steward the wild herds and harvest food from them the way the Native Americans did pre-colonization, is that not conservation and agriculture at work?

According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, "What once was a cornfield, is now a diverse ecosystem that provides habitat for thousands of native species, including sandhill cranes, state listed Blanding and yellow mud turtles."

3. Loess Plateau

The restoration of China's Loess Plateau has been a two-decade-long lesson in land degradation and rehabilitation. It has taught the world about economic and cultural impacts destructive farming, and grazing, have on a region. Chinese American filmmaker and ecologist John D. Liu documented this effort since it began in 1995. The Loess Plateau is a 250,000 square mile sedimentary deposit of rich fertile soil. People have lived here for 1.5 million years according to the fossil record. Agriculture had taken its toll on the plateau for 10,000 years, leaving the residents with degraded soils and yearly flooding.
Through offering tenure for the farmers on the land and compensation for lost income, the Chinese government convinced many of them to give up their tilled fields and plant trees. They shaped terraces on the hills and integrated watershed management. The government banned free range grazing resulting in setting ecological areas apart from economic land. The Loess plateau has gone from what looked like a desert ruin to a thriving agricultural and ecological economy due to these efforts. Through integrating the people and the restoration effort, farmers became educated about proper land care and sustainable agriculture. According to Liu, the local resident's incomes have nearly tripled since the project began and local markets are full of grains, meats, fruits, and vegetables.

4. Dimbangombe Ranch

The ranch at the African Center for Holistic Management (ACHM) is a 3200-hectare learning site partnered with the neighboring 40,000-hectare Hwang communal lands. This project reaches far beyond its physical borders with education and has roots throughout Africa, North and South America. Allan Savory gave a heart-wrenching TED talk in 2013 describing how he conceived of the practice of managing grazing animals to help repair the very land desecrated by bad grazing habits. Rehabilitating the land while maintaining local economies through keeping livestock is essential for communities and farmers who depend on cattle for a living.
Cattle, sheep, and goat herds at the ACHM ranch, are intensively managed in numerous paddocks designed to prevent overgrazing. Savory intended to imitate the patterns of natural herds in Africa. Moving the livestock quickly through an area allows them to trim perennial grasses, stomp down dead organic matter, and break up soil without causing damage to the ecosystem. If farmers manage their herds in this way, they don't have to burn dead grasses at the end of the year, and they maintain a healthy ground cover. Many of the cattle at the ranch belong to residents of Hwang who now help to demonstrate and teach the knowledge to students of the center. Local vegetable and fruit farms are also benefiting by allowing ranchers to use their fields as short-term paddocks. According to the ACHM website, paddocks of land that had not grown vegetation in 30 years have a cover of grasses and forage after just two years of holistic management. Rivers and seasonal pools are storing more water later into the dry seasons.

5. Dead Sea Valley Permaculture Project

This project is small, but the implications of it are massive for drought-stricken countries. Geoff Lawton and his Permaculture food forest videos have gained popularity in recent years. Known throughout the permaculture community as 'Greening the Desert,' this project is one of Lawton's food forests in the heart of Jordan's Dead Sea Valley. While only residing on one solid acre of land, the forest features an overstory of date palm with a multi-species understory including olives, fig, jojoba, passion fruit, custard apple, mango, carob, banana, cactus, and grape. These foods are grown without commercial inputs like fertilizers or soil and produced using far less water than other farms in the region. Through harnessing fungi and moisture retention, salt content has decreased over time in the site's soil composition attracting the attention of local conventional farmers.

Using a contour-based swale system helps the site conserve more water proportionately than commercial farms. Through implementing a multi-species food forest, the shade provided by overstory plants prevents moisture from evaporating helping contribute to water retention. The property also features a sustainable off-grid lodge with gray water systems, passive air conditioning, composting, wood heated water, and a classroom facility. Food forest technology is simple and accessible to most people around the world with a bit of education. It has the potential to rehabilitate regions struck with desertification and exemplifies a better agriculture for the entire Middle East.

These projects demonstrate how human ingenuity can play an essential role in re-greening the earth and producing sustainable food. As nature changes, man's relationship with all of his resources change. Sustainable agriculture and ecological conservation can work together in creating abundant ecosystems which feed people, provide habitat, and preserve nature.


Ted Gregory. "Bison mania hits 95 miles west of Chicago as herd continues to grow." Chicago Tribune, December 30th, 2016

Aleshia Kenney. "Bison in Illinois: A Story of Prairies and Partners at Nachusa Grasslands," U.S. Fish and Wildlife field notes, July 28, 2016

Liu Guobin. "Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture on the Loess Plateau: Challenges and Prospects" Ambio, Vol. 28, No. 8, Ecosystem Research and Management in China (Dec., 1999), pp. 663-668

"Hope in a changing climate - the Loess plateau revisited, and other examples of earth healing," The Permaculture Institute, October 1, 2010

Pamela Ngwenya. "Guest Column: Sustaining grasslands: planned grazing at Dimbangombe," Newsday, September 11, 2013

Colin Sullivan. "Can livestock grazing stop desertification?" Scientific American, March 5, 2013

Geoff Lawton. "Rough, Ready, But very real - A November 2013 update on the Jordan Valley Permaculture Project (AKA 'Greening the Desert' - The sequel site)" The Permaculture Research Institute, November 19, 2013,